Showing posts sorted by relevance for query triumph tiger fuel. Sort by date Show all posts
Showing posts sorted by relevance for query triumph tiger fuel. Sort by date Show all posts

Wednesday 12 August 2020

Triumph Tiger 955i Engine Remapping

There are a number of posts on this blog about working out the kinks in my 2003 Triumph Tiger 955i,
this is another one.  I've been playing with the Tuneboy engine management software that came with the bike, which works well, is put together well and is easy to use.  In working with the Tuneboy kit I discovered TUNEECU, a more open-source option for programming your own engine maps.

If you've never wrapped your head around engine maps, they're not very complicated.  Tuneboy does a good job of explaining how it works in their primer that comes with their software.

Back in the day you had a carburetor that used screws and jets to set the amount of fuel that got metered into the engine.   If you changed altitude you had to start swapping hard parts (usually the jets that sprayed fuel) to keep the bike running right, and sooner than later you had to manually trim the whole thing to keep it running right.  Electronic fuel injection took that all away.  A computer under the passenger seat on the Tiger takes inputs from sensors in the air-box (barometric pressure), in each of the three injectors , the fuel pump, radiator (engine temperature) and a crankcase sensor to constantly adjust things to use the most effective amount of fuel to make the bike go.  Put another way, carburetors are a mechanical, low resolution solution to feeding fuel into an engine.  Electronic fuel injection is a responsive, high resolution fix to the problem of delivering the right amount of fuel to a motor.

Tuneboy map editor - you can change settings and tell
the ECU (electronic control unit) what to do under
certain circumstances.

A fuel map is a spreadsheet of numbers.  Sensors feed the computer what RPM the engine is turning at and how much throttle is being asked for and based on the number in the fuel map, the computer delivers a set amount of fuel.  The 'fuel map' is literally a map that directs the computer to deliver a set amount of fuel.  If you're at high RPM and have just shut off the throttle, a smart EFI system will cut fuel delivery entirely, saving both fuel and emissions, something a carb couldn't manage.  If you suddenly give the bike a handful of throttle at low RPM, the map will direct the fuel injectors to deliver an optimal amount of fuel as it picks up speed, whereas a carb will always just send a mechanically set amount of fuel based only on how much wrist you're giving it.

In Tuneboy's system, you can change fueling and ignition maps, and modify things like idle speeds. The issue has been that the only maps I can find for Tuneboy are the stock ones from Triumph, which were set up to favour fuel economy and emissions over smoothness and drive-ability.  Meanwhile, TUNEECU (if you can navigate their 90's style web design and atrocious apostrophe use) offers you modified tunes that can smooth out your lumpy OEM map.

Of special interest to me were custom edits that made the list and have been on there for 9 years.  I don't know who Deano from South Africa/SA_Rider is, but they know their stuff.  The map on there does wonders for your Tiger's smoothness and pickup.  It might use a bit more fuel if you're heavy handed, but the difference in motor operation is impressive and worth it.

I was unable to find a digital tool to transpose the HEX files from TuneECU into my Tuneboy DAT format, so I opened up the modified HEX file and transposed the numbers over to the Default Tuneboy 10120 Triumph engine map and resaved it.  You can find that modified Tuneboy DAT file with the TuneECU South African mode here.

Finding this stuff isn't easy, and it's only getting harder as these old bike recede into the past, so I'm hoping this post help you find what you need to get your Tiger purring again.  It did wonders for mine.

Even though the old vacuum pipes held vacuum, I swapped them out for some similarly sized clear fuel line I had (you can see them going from above each injector to the idle stepper motor.  The TUNEboy software also comes with a diagnostics tool (with very cool 90s graphics!) that lets you test the radiator fan, idle stepper motor (which moves up and down modulating the vacuum in that black thing to the left/bottom in the picture) and the RPM gauge.


You can find TUNEboy here:
It comes with a cable that'll connect to your Triumph and is easy to get going, and comes with all the stock tunes.  It also lets you tune on a dyno, if you're minted.  It ain't cheap, but the minted guy who bought my bike new was, so he sprung for it and I'm still enjoying his largess over a decade later.

TuneECU can be found here:  Try to get past the out of control apostrophe use - they're better at software than they are at the speaking English goodly.
The older version is free, but finicky with Windows' old serial port drivers.  You can buy the app on the Android store for fifteen bucks, which seems perfectly reasonable.  You can then connect via bluetooth from a phone or Google tablet, though I understand you miss some connectivity that way.

It gets tricky these days finding the On Board Diagnostics (OBD) serial cable you need to connect the bike to the PC.  You can buy 'em from the UK, where people like fixing things.  CJ Designs in Wisconsin will sort you out with one too:

The modded engine maps for Triumphs on TuneECU can be found here:

The TuneECU page goes into detail about how you might use the TUNEboy cable, but it requires so much messing around with knocking default Windows drivers out of the way and forcing others on that I wouldn't bother (I didn't).

Sunday 30 May 2021

That Darned Tiger: Stalling issues on a Triumph Tiger 955i

The Tiger worked for a couple of months this spring but started recently stalling again.  The engine was getting rougher and any time I came off throttle quickly, such as downshifting, the engine would 'fall' right through where it normally idled and stall.  If I didn't downshift and let it drop to idle on the clutch it wouldn't stall.

If you're familiar with the blog then you know this isn't my first dance with Triumph's early fuel injection systems.  I've replaced the vacuum housing for the idle control system (a plastic piece that looks a bit under-engineered) and all the hoses and gaskets last year when chasing this thing, but looking over the deep winter maintenance I did I don't think I rebalanced the fuel injection after taking it all apart to clean it.

Balancing the FI on these 955i Triumphs is tricky because you have to take apart a lot of the bike just to get at the adjusters.  I've been in and out of this so many times that I'm quick - I don't even have to keep the fasteners sorted because I know where they all go.

To balance the fuel injection on a 955i Triumph engine, take the fuel tank and airbox off.  On the Tiger, if I put the fuel tank next to the bike the fuel lines are just long enough to connect so I can run the engine with the tank attached but off the bike.

I was going to use the Tuneboy to balance the injectors this time but couldn't figure out how to do it so just went back to good old-fashioned vacuum balancing.

Evidently you can balance throttle bodies off this but it jumps around so much I found it easier to use the vacuum balance I use for carburetors instead.  Perhaps the Inj #1, 2 & 3 P/W can be used to balance?

The Triumph triple is quite easy to balance once you've pulled it all apart.  The left side throttle (#1) isn't adjustable so you use it as your reference.  With that hose plugged in I balance the one next to it to #1 and then did the same with the far one.

I got this TecMate Carbmate Synchronizer from Fortnine last year and it makes the job quick, accurate and easy.  Just keep adjusting the screws between the throttle bodies until you have equal vacuum between them.

Don't balance two to three, just two to one and then three to one, so you don't need a non-existent three cylinder vacuum synchronizer.  I ended up buying the extender so I can do up to four carbs, but it isn't necessary for the Tiger, though it did come in handy on the Fireblade.

It took me about ten minutes to get everything from way out of whack to right on the green balanced light on the CarbMate.  Once I had it done the engine sounded less rough even with no airbox and missing sensors.

Running it like this pisses off the computer and throws up a whole bunch of warnings because you're not getting readings from the airbox sensor or the vacuum to engine management computer.  If you don't have a Tuneboy to clear the computer errors it takes a few runnings for the ECU to reset itself.  I just reset the errors in the Tuneboy system and then put it all back together again.

The bike immediately felt smoother and there were less backfires and hesitation when turning the throttle.  I took it out today and went for an extended ride and couldn't get it to stall even when doing things that caused frequent stalls last week, like down shifting to a stop and pulling the clutch as the engine was dropping in RPM.

If you're having stalling issues with a Triumph 955i fuel injected triple, balance the throttle bodies before you start chasing other issues.  Unbalanced throttle bodies cause stalling once the engine is hot.

I put some LockTite on the throttle body adjusters this time so hopefully it won't 'fall' out of adjustment again this riding season.  I'm still very concious of rubber parts perishing on this nearly twenty year old high-mileage bike.  Last summer's issues revolved around vacuum leaks in the idle control system so I'm going to keep a close eye on other rubber bits if I run into stalling issues again, but this time around it was just throttle body synchronization that seems to have done the trick.  Maybe next time I can work out how to do it with the Tuneboy so I can get it even more precise, though the CarbMate seems to have done the job with high fidelity.


955i Triumphs stalling links:

Throttle balance?

Throttle balance (again) - do it with TUNEBOY this time!

Check rubber parts for perishing:

Saturday 18 July 2020

Triumph 955i Engine Stalling: next steps

The Tiger continues to stall out on me at the most inopportune times.  It starts from cold and idles high, but once warm the lower idle doesn't seem to hold and the bike will stall, but not all the time, only when I really don't want it to.  Riding back from Haliburton last weekend, the bike stalled at lights and when I got stuck in traffic on a 6 lane highway traffic jam during a rain storm, but when I pulled over later it idled normally.  This kind of intermittent failure is very hard to diagnose.

Looking up the issue online, intermittent stalling on a Triumph 955i engine seems to be an issue.  I've replaced the idle control system and tested the vacuum tubes again (no leaks), so I don't think that's the issue.  It might be a sensor that doesn't return information consistently, but there are a lot of sensors feeding the computer that controls the fuel injection, so unless the bike is showing an error, I don't want to start replacing them willy-nilly.

The bike does occasionally show errors on the Tuneboy Software that came with the bike:

July 1st it showed:
P0113 Intake air temperature sensor
P0230 fuel pump relay fault
P1231 fuel pump relay open

P0462 fuel level sensor input
P0463 fuel level sensor input
P0505 Idle control system malfunction
... but then they all seemed to go away and the bike was running well when I left for the long ride last weekend (over 800kms over 2 days), at least until I was riding home at the end of it when the intermittent stalling returned.  It was showing this again this week:

I'm not sure that the air temperature sensor would be enough to stall out the engine, but this at least gives me a couple of things to look into: that air temp sensor and the fuel level sensor (though again, that shouldn't affect the idle).

Some advice people have given (on the internet, so take this advice with a healthy dose of skepticism) is that out of balance throttle bodies might cause the issue, so I got a Carbmate vacuum balancer from Fortnine who have their shit back together as far as filling orders go and got it to me in less than 2 days (use UPS, not Canada Post, who are still not working properly).

I balanced the throttle bodies with it, but the stalling persists.  I'm now looking at the mapping for the bike in addition to keeping an eye on errors that might pop up.  This video uses Easy Tune, which I haven't monkeyed with, but gives the impression that early Triumph electronic fuel injection was a bit of a mess and many dealers don't know how to resolve it:

That's a bit worrying because if I'm still stumped I was going to take the Tiger down to Inglis Cycle and have them resolve this with some factory testing, but if I'm going to pay dealer rates and get the bike back still stalling, that's not cool.

TuneECU was a free Windows software download (it's still available but not supported any more), but now it's an Android app you have to pay for (though fifteen bucks isn't unreasonable if it gives you control over your bike's ECU).  Unfortunately the Tuneboy cable and software I have isn't directly compatible with it without some dark Windows driver mojo (newer windows auto-install a driver that doesn't work with the old chipset on the Tuneboy cable).  Triumph uses the same FTDi FT232RL VAG-COM OBDII/USB cable as VW does, but I think I'm going to try and resolve any mapping issues with the Tuneboy since it came with the bike and works.

I think I'm going to go back and look at the fuel pump relay and the wiring for it as an intermittent fault there would starve the engine and cause stalling.  Less likely are the air temperature sensor and fuel level sensor, which have been a bit whacky with the fuel gauge going from full to empty and back to full again, but I don't see how that could cause a stall.  If there's gas in the tank, the engine will use it.

My order of operations is:
- fuel pump relay (which might have gotten wet at a recent cleaning, so it's on my mind)
- fuel level sensor
- air temperature sensor

If they aren't crazy expensive, I might just get all 3 new rather than paying shipping x3, which would probably cost more than the parts.


"throttle slides were out of balance"
fuel injector/carb syncronizer
vin looker upper if you're wanting to confirm year and make
'free' ECU tuning options for Triumphs - early FI Triumphs seem to have a number of issues
video guide to TuneECU (I can't stand online how-to videos, I prefer text. Waiting for 30 second intros each time drives me around the bend, but maybe you like that
chip drivers for FTDI cables
Using a Tuneboy cable with TuneECU
connections issue with TuneECU (I found Tuneboy pretty straight forward, but it's a more expensive option that I'm using only because it came with the bike)
Parts diagram for a 2003 Triumph Tiger 955i focusing on the EFI relay (it's under the seat) Triumph RELAY, EFI Part # T2502109

Tuesday 1 February 2022

Triumph Tiger 955i Fuel Injector Cleaning

We're seeing temperatures in the low -20s these days and waves of snow passing through creating banks that are hard to see over.  To quote the Penguins of Madagascar...

The roads themselves are sanded and snow covered too.  We've got a major storm rolling in tonight that looks like it'll pitch another 48 hours of the white stuff at us.

At this time of year I tend to be in a mood as it's been far too long since I've leaned into any corners.  Compounding the lack of riding is the tricky nature of trying to find parts for the old Triumph Bonneville in order to keep that project purring along.  What parts there are pretty damned expensive too.  I'll get back into it soon enough, but in the meantime I thought I'd give the new (er) Triumph's fuel injectors a cleaning.

I've been in and out of the Tiger so many times that it's second nature.  The tank removal process (which is pretty complicated involving removing 4 panels and many awkward fasteners) can be done (blindfolded!) in about 10 minutes.

Last year I installed a new regulator/rectifier, but didn't install it properly because I didn't want to dismantle the whole lot.  The first job was to properly fasten it down.

The second job was to remove the fuel rail.  This is easy on the 955i Tiger (two bolts), but one was threaded (having a 19 year old bike as my regular runner does produce some headaches).  A cunningly installed second nut on the back of the threaded one had it all back together tight though.

For the fuel injectors I heated up the ultrasonic cleaner to 65°C and ran the vibrations for 20
minutes before cleaning them up with fuel cleaner.  The injector nozzles are very fine, so even a small piece of gunk getting past the fuel filter could cause headaches.

Once cleaned and sorted I press fitted the injectors back into the rail and reinstalled it back onto the bike.  The injectors press fit (there are thick rubber gaskets on each end) into the metal injector body on the bike too.  The only tricky bit was sorting out that threaded mounting bolt, but there is space behind the rail for a second nut and it did the trick.  While I was in there I cleaned all the electrical connections and put dielectric grease on the connectors to keep everything neat and dry.

It all went back together well and I had the tank back on and the Tiger back in hibernation before it knew what had happened to it.  I'm hoping the cleaning sorts a slow starting issue that developed after I solved the stalling issue last summer.

The old Tiger's fuel injection is one of the crankiest things about it.  Early mechanical fuel injection is famously, um, personality ridden.  The latest (delightful?) bit of character is having to lean on the starter motor for several seconds before it fires.  It used to fire at the touch of the starter, so I'm hoping to get that back again.

We're in the middle of semester turnover and I haven't had time to chase the old Triumph parts guys (who like to do things old school on a telephone), but that's next on the list of things to do before the weather breaks and I can lean into a corner again.

Sunday 17 January 2021

2003 Triumph Tiger 955i Winter Maintenance Continued

Winter Maintenance List:

Front end chassis maintenance:

Rear end chassis maintenance:

Got the backend back together yesterday:

Today it's the rear brake caliper going back on with new HEL brake line, then a brake bleed and if I have some extra time I'll finish up all the hardware bits and pieces on the front and rear and then turn to the engine.

The fuel injectors are coming out and getting ultrasonically cleaned and the rest of the system's getting a flush.

The odds and ends went together well.  Even the brakes were quick to bleed, so with the wheels back on and the new brake lines installed I turned to the fuel injection.

The injectors highlighted in yellow above are press fit in and just pull out of  the throttle body and the fuel rail behind.

The fuel rail is held in by clips and two bolts holding it in place relative to the throttle body.

The whole thing just pops out when you've undone the two bolts.

With the fuel injectors so easy to remove, I'll be quicker at cleaning them in the future.

Ultrasonic cleaners aren't expensive and do a great job on fuel injectors.

Cleaning doesn't take long if you remove the rail and injectors.

Ultrasonic cleaning gets into the small places.

The injectors press fit back into the throttle body with a beefy o-ring to seal them.

My fuel-line replacements for unavailable replacement rubber hoses for the vacuum driven idle control system (on the right) scored a two out of three.  The far one on the left got kinked, so I cut back the hose and I'll see how it does shortened.  If that doesn't work I'll start looking for stronger walled alternatives.

Tuesday 17 October 2023

Finding Your Way Around OEM's Giving Up on Parts Support: Triumph 955i Fuel Injection Seals

With Triumph giving up on my Tiger before I'm prepared to, I'm going to document the research and give details on what works when you're trying to keep a Triumph 955i's fuel system working by replacing old o-rings.

This has involved a crash course in o-rings and engine operating temperatures. As I work out a fix here I'll post details on o-ring sizing, what type works and include data on measuring the intake manifold at temperature.

It's been all Concours for the past few weeks while the Tiger is laid up. I'm hoping to get the fuel system sorted before the snows fly and I have to wait for next year.

Here are the measurements for the upper and lower fuel injector seals. The classy move by Triumph would be to open source publish the technical details for all the parts they no longer support so that the rest of us can get on with keeping the history of the marquee alive. With that in mind, here are the deets for the upper and lower fuel injector o-rings:

The thick ones go on top where the fuel injector meets the rail. My best guess is 3mm thick by 1.5cm outer circumference.

The skinny ones go on the bottom where the fuel injector slides into the intake manifold.

My best guess there is 2mm wide by 1.4mm outer circumference. 

Unfortunately, buying off the shelf boxes of o-rings isn't likely to get you anything that fits. The two below from Amazon didn't. This thing looks handy:

The Tiger is a metric bike, so I'll work in mm (if Triumph went imperial on o-ring, what the actual f***). The thicker o-ring is 1.5cm or 15mm outside diameter (OD) and (I think) about 3.5mm cross section (CS). Looking at that chart, the #203 is a 14.58mm outer diameter with a 3.53mm cross section. That makes it mighty close. What would be nicer would be if Triumph just came out and gave us the precise sizes for these parts it has discontinued. Triumph?

The thinner one is also a 1.5 (ish) mm outer diameter (15mm-ish), but the cross section is thinner - perhaps two and a bit mm, and they have a 2.62mm cross section standard o-ring size. You'd have to hope Triumph didn't make bespoke o-rings for their fuel injectors, right? For the skinny o-ring I think I'd take a swing at the 2.62mm cross section / 14.43mm (1.443cm) size.

The All O-Rings site also has a good description of the materials you want to get your o-rings in. Nitrile and Viton are what I went with in the pointless Amazon order, but those are the materials you want in a fuel heavy application like this.

That's the configurator (right) - pretty straightforward, but it sounds like they manufacture each order, which probably won't make this a viable solution for someone just trying to keep their old Triumph on the road.

If only there was some kind of network of retailers who supported Triumph motorcycles who could order this parts to help their customers keep their older Triumphs rolling... some kind of 'dealer' network who understand how parts work and how to order this sort of thing in large enough quantities to make a profit while offering customers what they need.


How hot motorcycle engines runs:

Buna (Nitrile or NBR) o-rings:

Viton vs. Nitrile o-rings:

All O-Rings

They have sizing tools!

I'd prefer to use All O-Rings for the parts, but they might be a B2B type of thing, and I'm not a B.

Amazon's kits:

Turns out Amazon's shot-in-the-dark kits didn't work either. There's more to this o-ring sizing caper to come. I wish I could just 3d print the nitrile o-rings I was looking for (doesn't look like it's additive manufacturing friendly).